Within the midst of a match, it might appear as if some referees have private vendettas or a heightened sense of affinity towards sure golf equipment, however it’s fairly troublesome to show that principle. We are able to speculate all we wish, however having a look on the knowledge may shed some gentle on what’s doubtlessly happening relating to officiator biases.
Particularly how typically referees hand out yellow and purple playing cards in high soccer leagues internationally, we will evaluate and distinction the refereeing tendencies on each macro and micro ranges. For instance, which league’s golf equipment get carded probably the most total? Which referees are probably the most trigger-happy? Do sure referees goal some golf equipment greater than others or have clear favourites? Learn on to seek out out.
Seeing Pink (or Yellow)
Let’s see which league’s referees usually tend to subject yellow or purple playing cards, and which are likely to let issues slide extra typically.
- • La Liga referees hand out probably the most yellow playing cards per match, on common (5.07), whereas English Premier League referees hand out the least (3.19).
- • Ligue 1 referees hand out probably the most purple playing cards per match, on common (0.27), whereas English Premier League referees hand out the least (0.13).
The referees in Spanish top-flight soccer have been probably the most trigger-happy when it got here to allotting yellow playing cards – the playing cards used to warning gamers for his or her on-field actions or behaviour. With a mean of 5.07 yellows given per sport, they handed out almost 0.5 greater than the following league, Italy’s Serie A.
Pink playing cards have been usually a lot much less seemingly for use, however the knowledge exhibits Ligue 1 match officers felt the necessity to use them probably the most. Not like the yellow card, when a participant sees purple, they’re promptly ejected from the match. Two yellow playing cards will end in a purple one, however the latter will be given immediately if the participant’s motion or behaviour is deemed extreme sufficient.
That’s a Warning
Which referees are quickest to e-book a participant, and what number of really feel the necessity to pull the purple card?
The referees that handed out probably the most playing cards per sport, on common, within the high 5 European soccer leagues have been as follows:
- • Josè Antonio Teixeira Vitienes (La Liga) – 7.14 yellow playing cards and 0.38 purple playing cards
- • Fabio Maresca (Serie A) – 5.51 yellow playing cards and 0.34 purple playing cards
- • Stèphane Lannoy (Ligue 1) – 4.56 yellow playing cards and 0.26 purple playing cards
- • Thorsten Kinhöfer (Bundesliga) – 4.37 yellow playing cards and 0.24 purple playing cards
- • Stuart Attwell (English Premier League) – 3.67 yellow playing cards and 0.14 purple playing cards
Throughout the highest 5 leagues since 2011, La Liga referee José Antonio Teixeira Vitienes is the king of yellow playing cards. The truth is, the primary 9 referees accountable for handing out probably the most yellow playing cards all officiate matches within the Spanish league, and within the high 20, solely referees from the Spanish and Italian leagues are listed. In the meantime, Lee Mason, who works within the English Premier League, was the least prone to flash a yellow. He’s retiring from on-pitch refereeing on the finish of the 2020-21 soccer season, which may disappoint any gamers who have been used to getting away with questionable behaviour below Mason’s watch.
For extra severe match violations, Spanish referee César Muñiz Fernández was the quickest to eject a participant from the sport, whereas Bundesliga official Robert Kampka nearly by no means reached for the purple card.
Some Extra Than Others
Some golf equipment get punished for his or her on-field behaviour greater than others. Do sure referees self-discipline particular golf equipment extra typically?
The golf equipment that acquired probably the most playing cards per sport, on common, within the high 5 European soccer leagues have been as follows:
- • Getafe CF (La Liga) – 3.46 whole playing cards
- • SPAL (Serie A) – 2.90 whole playing cards
- • Monaco (Ligue 1) – 2.29 whole playing cards
- • Fortuna Düsseldorf (Bundesliga) – 2.24 whole playing cards
- • Watford (English Premier League) – 2.04 whole playing cards
No membership acquired extra playing cards than Getafe CF, who’re handed 3.46 per sport, on common. As talked about, Spanish and Italian referees appear to be harsher on their gamers, as golf equipment primarily based in these two nations are probably the most carded up till the thirty first membership, which is France-based Monaco with a extra modest 2.29 playing cards per sport.
Taking a more in-depth have a look at Getafe CF, we will see that one referee, Javier Turienzo Álvarez, palms out a whopping six playing cards per sport to this membership, on common. Ranked third amongst referees who hand out probably the most playing cards throughout high leagues, his no-nonsense strategy has been a thorn in Getafe CF’s aspect. On high of that, the membership has had a disastrous begin to their season, shedding their first six video games in a row – they could profit from somebody somewhat extra Lee Mason-esque officiating their video games for the rest of the season.
Some golf equipment are usually handled favourably, others don’t. Let’s see who’s getting which finish of the stick.
The European soccer golf equipment that skilled probably the most bias in their favour within the final 10 years have been the next:
- • FC Barcelona (La Liga) – 0.76
- • Napoli (Serie A) – 0.74
- • Nîmes (Ligue 1) – 0.82
- • Borussia Dortmund (Bundesliga) – 0.8
- • AFC Bournemouth (English Premier League) – 0.42
The European soccer golf equipment that skilled probably the most bias towards them within the final 10 years have been the next:
- • Leganés (La Liga) – -0.59
- • Chievo (Serie A) – -0.53
- • Dijon (Ligue 1) – -0.4
- • Hannover 96 (Bundesliga) – -0.43
- • Fulham (English Premier League) – -0.5
No membership was topic to extra constructive bias during the last 10 years than Nîmes. Though the membership solely spent three years in top-flight soccer in France throughout that point span, they have been carded considerably much less of their matches than their opponents have been. FC Barcelona, Napoli, Borussia Dortmund, and AFC Bournemouth skilled probably the most constructive biases of their respective leagues.
Alternatively, Leganés, who at the moment play in La Liga 2 (second division Spanish soccer), have been topic to probably the most bias towards them throughout their current four-year tenure within the first division. The membership doesn’t appear to have been any luckier when it comes to refereeing this 12 months, as they at the moment sit low within the second league desk and are liable to getting relegated to a fair decrease stage of competitors. Chievo, Dijon, Hannover 96, and Fulham additionally haven’t been capable of catch a break with reference to referee bias during the last decade.
Two Sides to the Story
We dive in somewhat deeper, precisely which referees are likely to favour some golf equipment or make life tougher for others.
The referees that confirmed probably the most bias towards explicit European soccer golf equipment within the final 10 years have been as follows:
- • Eduardo Prieto Iglesias towards Getafe CF (La Liga) – 2.80
- • Luca Prieto towards Bologna (Serie A) – 2.50
- • Hakim Ben El Hadj towards Nîmes (Ligue 1) – 2.20
- • Peter Gagelmann towards Borussia Dortmund (Bundesliga) – 2.14
- • Mike Jones towards Tottenham Hotspur (English Premier League) – 2.17
The referees that confirmed probably the most bias towards explicit European soccer golf equipment within the final 10 years have been the next:
- • Antonio Miguel Mateu Lahoz towards Rayo Vallecano (La Liga) – -2.28
- • Andrea De Marco towards Udinese (Serie A) – -2.60
- • Alexandre Castro towards PSG, Amaury Delerue towards Troyes, Olivier Thual towards Monaco (Ligue 1) – -2.20
- • Manuel Gräfe towards Hannover 96 (Bundesliga) – -2.15
- • Peter Bankes towards Newcastle United (English Premier League) – -2.40
Utilizing knowledge primarily based on referees that had officiated matches of explicit golf equipment at the least 10 occasions, Spanish referee Javier Estrada Fernández may secretly be pulling for Actual Madrid of their video games. His bias rating is 0.54 factors greater than the rating for the following most biased referee for a selected membership. That being mentioned, trying solely at La Liga, it’s truly Getafe FC who’ve been topic to probably the most beneficial refereeing, overseen by Eduardo Prieto Iglesias.
Serie A has some referees who may particularly have it out for sure golf equipment – going again to the graph of referees who’ve officiated at the least 10 matches of a given membership, Fabrizio Pasqua has proven probably the most bias towards the membership Cagliari. In our Serie A-only graph, referee Andrea De Marco has been probably the most brazenly biased – towards Udinese.
Numbers Don’t Lie
Typically, our knowledge exhibits that refereeing in La Liga is harsher than in different leagues – their officers hand out yellow and purple playing cards extra typically than in every other high European soccer league. Consequently, most of the world’s most carded golf equipment have been additionally from the Spanish high division.
Quantifying referee bias is difficult, as a result of it’s almost unattainable to show if a membership is genuinely being handled unfairly. Fortunately, knowledge and statistics can all the time, on the very least, shed some gentle on the problem and spotlight key factors. The individuals over at FootyStats perceive this, which is why they supply complete, thorough knowledge for all issues soccer. Whether or not it’s participant, membership, or league-related info, you need to use all of it to make extra knowledgeable and correct predictions on soccer video games and occasions. Head over now to expertise the FootyStats distinction.
Methodology and Limitations
For this research, we gathered sport knowledge from the 5 largest leagues in European soccer (English Premier League, La Liga, Serie A, Bundesliga, and Ligue 1) from the final 10 years utilizing the FootyStats API. In consequence, we acquired match knowledge for 18,227 matches. We filtered out matches for which card knowledge and referee title wasn’t reported, leaving us with 9,960 matches. For every match, we recorded the house and away golf equipment, the variety of yellow and purple playing cards given to each golf equipment, and the referee in command of the match. Utilizing this info, we have been capable of analyse referee behaviour individually, towards every membership, and towards every membership.
No statistical testing was carried out, so the claims listed above are primarily based on means alone. As such, this content material is exploratory and is introduced for informational functions solely. The API pull passed off throughout August 2021.
Truthful Use Assertion
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